“Warming up is one of the most important phases of exercise. Thanks to him our muscles and our circulatory system are prepared to assume an expenditure of energy greater than the usual, thanks to the mediation of the endocrine system and its hormonal regulation.”
However, we must bear in mind that there are several types of sports warming depending on the type of physical activity that we will use when playing sports. In this article we will see a summary of these categories, and their characteristics.
What is warming up before doing sports?
The general concept of sports warm-up refers to a series of exercises that aim to work at the same time several groups of muscles of the body, so that the body is prepared for the demands of sport and enters a state of activation in the that it is possible to strive physically.
Basically, it is about making the body to give its best and that the investment of efforts lead to optimal performance, minimizing the risk of injury and achieving better objectives.
To do this, the temperature of the muscles is increased and the heart rate is accelerated, processes that allow a rapid and efficient release of force.
The main types of sports warm-up
Let’s see now what are the types of warming up before exercising, and what their functions are.
1. General warming up
The main function of general warming up is to prepare as many muscles as possible for the activity that will come, without focusing on a particular muscle group. It is used so that the whole body enters, globally, in a phase of activation and optimization of calorie burning.
To do this type of warm-up, movements are carried out that do not involve exerting much force. That is, exercises that activate muscles distributed throughout the body and of medium or moderate intensity. For example, walking on the elliptical or running without getting to sprint.
2. Specific warming up
In the segmented warming up, or specific, we work with the muscles and joints that are directly involved in the type of exercise we are going to perform.
Normally, this type of warm-up consists of performing the exercise that we will then do, practicing it with low or very low intensity. For example, if we are going to perform a bench press, the segmented heating will raise the bar by adding discs that weigh very little, so that we can do many repetitions.
While the general warm-up is done once and is valid for the whole session, it is possible (and recommendable) to carry out several stages of segmented heating in each session, one each time you change activity or muscle groups to work.
3. Dynamic warming up
If the previous types of warming up differ especially with an emphasis on the parts of the body that involve, in this case the main characteristic is the nature of the activity to be performed.
Dynamic warming up is distinguished by putting into practice very varied biological processes: strength, flexibility, proprioception and balance, control of breathing, sharpening of reflexes, etc.
So, appeals to both physical and psychological properties to make us enter the physical and mental state that will prepare us to function properly when we really do the sport or the exercise for which we train.
For example, quickly doing a series of exercises without pausing through a circuit, although with medium intensity, falls into this category.
4. Preventive warming up
It involves the implementation of specific instructions indicated by a professional who has given guidelines to prevent a specific type of injury or the worsening of an injury that already exists.
For its own reason of being, it is of low intensity, although its nature can vary greatly depending on the case and the possible risk faced by those who practice sports.