I am very curious about psychology and the origin of human behavior, so let’s change course and speak about it.
Behavior is the set of behaviors by means of which the human being expresses or manifests his way of being, in the different activities he performs.
Examples of behaviors:
Yelling or insulting (verbal behavior)
Embracing (body behavior)
Blinking, coughing (psychological behavior)
Perform a mathematical operation (intellectual behavior)
Human behavior is constituted by a series of factors that determine the development of Human Behavior.
Determining Factors of Human Behavior
Humankind develops on the basis of its biological, psychological and social structure, allowing the formation of his personality in interrelation with the physical, social and cultural environment.
Among the factors or components that determine human behavior we have:
- Biological or internal factors: which includes heredity (nervous system) and maturation (endocrine system).
- Environmental or External Factors: that includes the physical environment that surrounds us, the social environment and the cultural environment in which we live.
Biological or Internal Factors:
a) Heritage: the inheritance is the set of biological and psychological characteristics, which are transmitted from parents to children.
The hereditary or genetic material is formed by a substance called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that are located in small particles called “genes” that in turn, are part of structures called “chromosomes” that are found in the nucleus of cells.
The “DNA molecules” store the biological and psychological characteristics of each person and are responsible for transmitting them from father to son.
The biological characteristics are color of the skin, of the eyes, the shape of the nose, the size of the person and all those external features that make up the total constitution or structure of the human being.
The physiological characteristics are: sex, food, need for water, light, heat, etc.
The biological inheritance transmitted by parents to children is due to the union of the “spermatozoo” (male cell); with the “ovule” (female cell). The product of this union originates an “embryonic cell”, which combines the biological characteristics of the parents in a proportional and varied way.
For example: If the father is short and white and the mother is tall and dark, the children are short and brown and others white and of medium height.
The sex of human beings is determined in the following way:
- Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes, of which 22 pairs are non-sexual and only one pair of chromosomes are sexual.
- The “male gamete” (sperm), provides a male sex chromosome “Y” or a female sexual “X”.
- The “female gamete” (ovum) always contributes a chromosome of feminine character “X”.
- At conception, if the male gamete provides the “X” chromosome and joins the female gamete “X” a girl will be born, if the male gamete carries the “Y” chromosome and the female “X” will be born a boy.
From the above we concluded that the sex of the human being is determined by the father.
It is convenient to point out that behavior is not directly hereditary, but physical structures that determined by genes can influence behavior.
Hence, we must study the nervous system which is a body structure that is related to the psyche.
Gregorio Mendel, Austrian biologist and religious, formulated a fundamental law of inheritance and its variations that says: “Children inherit 50% of parents and 50% of their ancestors.”
b) Maturation: it is a complex, gradual process that ends the psychic and biological development according to time and age.
All the characteristics and capacities that human acquire in his life are products of two basic processes: maturation and learning.
Logically, growth is not learned, but depends on the maturation process that leads to biological development.
Maturation is not really just one, but several processes, each of which has its own rhythm of maturation. That is why progress in motor activities such as walking, dancing, reading, depends on a progressive maturation, which with learning are mutually conditioned.
The onset of “puberty” and the anatomo-physiological changes mark the time of sexual maturity and are related to the development of the “Endocrine Glandular System” in general, and of the adrenal glands, hence the need for further study .
a) Physical Environment: is the environment in which a person develops and influences it, and often acts as a determinant of their behavior. Also, the physical-geographical environment and its phenomena such as climate, fauna, etc. , determine characteristics of the inhabitants of different places.
This situation arises with greater reason in our country, to have an extensive and varied territory, where there are very different regions such as coast and mountains and jungle that determine very different factors that distinguish their inhabitants from each other.
A suitable temperature, abundant flora and fauna, with a good climate, will become positive factors for the development of human behavior. For example: the inhabitants of the coast and the forest will dress more lightly than an inhabitant of the sierra, who should be more sheltered.
b) Social Environment: from birth the human being lives in close relationship with other people. The mix of people who live around us, make up the “environment or social environment” with great influence on the human being.
They constitute the social environment: family, friends, neighbors, school, work centers, etc., who in turn have norms, customs, beliefs, ideas, etc .; influencing people in: their way of being, thinking, acting, feeling, etc. For these reasons we affirm that “man is a social being”.
The family as the basic cell of society, is the first transcendental element of influence, on people, later it is the school and the circle of friends with whom they live.
Social environment influences the way of living in terms of clothing, food, ideals, values, etc.
For example: Children who live in a home where there is harmony and understanding, as such are treated properly, grow normally and are serene interacting with others positively.
c) Cultural Environment: everything that the human being creates is “culture”. The human being lives interacting with the multiple and diverse human creations such as: radio, television, computer, books, newspapers, moral standards, works of art, markets, means of transport, etc., that is, with all material objects or Spiritual created by man.
The human being lives in close contact with the cultural environment, the same that decisively influences their psychic life, way of being, feeling, thinking, acting, etc.
“Socialization” is the learning process that teaches us to behave correctly, that is, it is the adaptation of the human being to the rules and customs of the group in which he lives and develops, growing and learning through human relationships.
The human being learns more when it is closely related to the family, friends school, etc., enabling the acquisition of new knowledge, new behaviors
The “learning” process through which the human being acquires knowledge through experience and that are necessary for the development of his life.
Considering these definitions, we could affirm that learning acts in man as “means of socialization”, in the various stages of his development, allowing him to relate to others.
Socialization makes it easy for you to learn the behavior of other people.
• Nervous System: we can not study human behavior if we do not know the anatomy and physiology of the Nervous System.
This system of great perfection that directs and processes all the information of the body by means of electrical impulses (nervous), is constituted by nerve cells called “neurons”, which exist by millions in it.
These have different shapes and sizes, but they have the following parts:
1. Cell body: there is the nucleus.
2. Dendrites: they are numerous ramifications.
3. Axon: it is a long and fine extension. It is also called cylinder-axis or neurite.
The nervous system performs the following functions:
1. Sensitive: transmit to the brain the sensations perceived by the organs of the senses.
2. Memorization: store memories of lived experiences.
3. Intelligence: ability to create thoughts or concepts, solve problems, difficulties, based on reasoning.
4. Motility: give orders to the muscles to perform the necessary movements, to perform an activity (walking, climbing, playing, etc.)
- Structure: the nervous system has two parts:
Central Nervous System (CNS): formed by encephalon and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System (SNP): formed by somatic and autonomous nervous system.
Central Nervous System: formed by
A) Encephalon: formed by:
a) Brain: is the one that directs our whole body and from it comes wisdom. It occupies most of the skull. He is a great consumer of energy since he never rests, works all day and night. The brain is made up of:
Two hemispheres, whose surface is covered with furrows, which if deep are called fissures (Rolando, Silvio).
Brain trunk: located in its lower part and internal. It regulates the vital processes of the organism, such as breathing.
b) Cerebellum: is the center of general sensitivity and controls voluntary movements, body posture, balance.
c) Spinal bulb: is the center of reflex behavior, it depends on the functioning of most vital organs: circulation, secretion, etc.
d) Thalamus: located on the two hemispheres, regulates sensitivity and activity of the senses.
B) Spinal Cord: has the appearance of a cord of nerves. Almost all of them and they leave the central nervous system. It has two functions:
- It drives the nervous currents, both of the sensibility and of the movement.
- It is the nerve center that transforms sensibility into movement.
2. Peripheral Nervous System: is composed of a vast and complex network of nerve cells (sensory and motor). Its purpose is to transmit information from the brain to the muscles and glands of the body.
It consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves, which go to the sense organs and 31 pairs of spinal nerves. It is subdivided into:
A) Somatic Nervous System: it is in charge of voluntary movements. It includes the sensory systems and motor nerves that put skeletal muscles into action
B) Autonomous, Visceral or Involuntary Nervous System: controls the functions of the viscera (heart, intestines, etc.) which are carried out automatically and ordinarily at an unconscious level. It keeps the organism in balance.
• Endocrine System: formed by various glands that secrete hormones, (they are chemical substances) that are poured into the blood. These stimulate, inhibit and regulate the activity of different organs or systems.
While the nervous system is characterized by the speed of transmission (electrical), the endocrine, is slow, since it depends on the speed of the blood.
The main endocrine glands are:
a) Pituitary gland: coordinates the entire endocrine system and regulates growth. Indicates the onset of puberty and sexual maturity.
b) Thyroid: regulates activity and stimulates emotions.
c) Adrenal glands: regulate the activity of reproductive organs; segregates the “adrenaline”
d) Gonads: called sexual glands, formed by the testicles in man and the ovaries in women. They produce androgens or male hormones and estrogens or female hormones; condition the behavior of each sex.